Written on 21/09/21 by Erika C.
Water pump: a valuable tool for the most significant resource of life
This topic deserves some hints of history because the water pump is an invention that has transformed our lives, saving us time and effort. According to some written sources, the first water pump was invented by the genius Archimedes of Syracuse in approximately 300 BC and was called cochlea. It was composed of a simple screw inserted into a tube and operated by human or animal force: in this way, the fluid involved was going in the desired direction. Today, the pump is a mechanical device that makes it possible for water to flow, transforming the energy supplied by a motor into hydraulic power. This procedure allows you to use a recirculation of water for several operations; from the emptying of a well or pool to irrigation works. Clearly, for each purpose, there will be different pumps, and in this guide, we will try to shed light on the many types available in the market.
Delivery Head and flow of the pump
Before going into the more specific features, we would like to clarify what are the hydraulic head and flow of the pump. These two values are indeed significant because they are decisive in the choice of the purchase you will make. They will help you understand which pump is best suited to your needs. The flow rate is the quantity of liquid that can be moved in a specific time and is expressed as l / h, while the delivery head is the ability in itself to move the fluid in height and is measured in meters. But Don't worry! Don't be alarmed: usually, the head/flow rate graph is written on the pump packaging itself.
The submersible pump or immersion pump is one of the most used types in the thermo-hydraulic environment. It is the ideal tool for emptying a flooded area like a room after a flood, but also to drain a pool. From the word itself, to work, this machine needs an instrument called float; the float is nothing but a box with a sensor connected to the pump by a wire. In the absence of water, the float assumes a horizontal position. Otherwise, it will rise to assume a vertical position, and once this position is reached, the water will cause it to float, and it will activate the sensor.
On the contrary, when the water drops, the float will return to a horizontal position, and the sensor will deactivate. The task for the float is to activate the pump, which transforms the electrical energy into kinetic energy. Another particular component, called the impeller, will give it pressure, pushing the fluid upwards.
Submersible clear/clean water pump
The submersible pump for clear water is a pump designed to draw clean water. For clean/clear water, we mean home water, drinking or undrinkable, irrigation water, water treated with chlorine (as in the case of swimming pools) or ozone. This type of pump will be able to suck up clean water. For this reason, the impeller (the instrument we mentioned in the above paragraph) will not be able to shred large residues. Its granular residue is about <5 mm and if you're wondering, the seawater is not considered clean because due to salinity it is very corrosive.
Submersible dirty/black water pump
Submersible dirty/black water pump, also known as the submersible sewage pump is more efficient and resistant than a clean water pump. Its granular residue, or the ability to "withstand" / filter remains and debris, can be higher than 25 mm. For this reason, this pump is suitable for those who need to take care of pumping water where there are muddy residues as in the case of biological pits or sewer wells
Submersible well pump
The submersible pump for the well is one of the pumps most appreciated by users. Because if you have a well in the garden, collecting the water with a bucket to irrigate your garden could be quite tiring. If you find yourself in what you just read, this type of pump is the one for you; but you need to pay attention to some small details that could lead you to make a wrong choice. Buying a pump with float, for example, would be a mistake, because when this activates the pump, the water will rise. Pay attention also to the depth of your well and consequently to the maximum immersion capacity of the pump. Also, the length of the electric cable is a detail to take into consideration and even attention to the material: choose stainless steel, to prevent the machine from rusting in record time.
The 12-volt submersible pump
The 12v submersible pump is a pump of reduced dimensions: its primary function is to empty small flooded spaces as in the case of water infiltration on boats or rafts. This type of pump is ideal for home and occasional use. Its low cost makes it a perfect tool, for those who have no professional needs or for those who may need it in case of small accidents. The 12-volt pump is ideal for keeping at home in case of emergencies.
Garden irrigation pumps
So-called garden pumps allow you to carry out various jobs, including irrigation. These mechanical devices can suck up water from tanks or cisterns to water plants, orchards or lawns. The pumps manage to push the water outwards with such force that it will be able to reach even important distances. In this case, you won't have to waste time moving around trying to water as much land as possible, and you can also avoid wasting running water!
The self-priming pump is a type of pump that automatically expels (from here the self-priming name) the air present in the pipes during the start-up phase. So afterwards, it succeeds in sucking the water in total autonomy, without your intervention. The rotary movement of the impeller will create strong turbulence in the liquid inside the pump body, and once all the air is expelled from the duct, the pump will start. Also, the advantage of the self-priming pump is that it has a non-return valve installed in the body which prevents it from emptying when the pump stops, in this way, you will not have to add more water to allow self-priming at every restart.
Autoclave water pump
The autoclave pump is an invention, to say the least, intelligent because it is designed to increase water pressure where it is low or insufficient. It is a sort of lifesaver for those who live in a building, especially on the top floors, because often in these cases the water pressure is rather low. Also, for those who need large quantities of water to irrigate their land. The autoclave pump can be connected both to water systems and to external tanks filled with water, and in both cases, the result will be higher pressure and efficiency. But how is it possible for all this to happen? But how can all this happen? The autoclave is equipped with an expansion tank filled with air and a solenoid valve capable of reading the pressure variations thanks to which the autoclave will automatically activate when the pressure drops, that is when a tap opens in the system.
The motor pump, also called a combustion pump, works via a combustion engine, so this is a portable type that does not need electricity but petrol or diesel to be powered. In most cases, this type of pump is used for irrigation of gardens and in general in agriculture. Because we are talking about professional products that thanks to this particular motor, have higher power than the classic pumps used in the home or for hobbies. Almost all motor pumps are self-priming, and for dark waters, because they are often used in emergencies, such as fire, in which it is necessary to draw water from reserves like lakes and, considered the source, you could inevitably meet the suction of debris or waste in general.
The electric pump is a type of pump powered by an electric motor, which will be with brushes or induction if of very high power. The power is expressed in kilowatts (kW), and through this value, we will understand how much energy consumption requires the pump to work. These characteristics listed above are common to all pumps, while the one that changes from model to model is the support. For example, in a submersible pump, these will be immersed in the liquid that they must draw, while in the surface ones, it is likely to be installed outside the basin and therefore dry.